Print Exception Python: In any programming environment, errors are inevitable. They are the ghosts in the code that developers often have to chase. Python, like other languages, has a robust system of handling exceptions, making it easier for programmers to deal with the myriad of errors that could occur. The manner in which Python allows for exceptions to be caught and handled, particularly through printing, provides a powerful tool for debugging and ensuring software reliability.

Key Takeaways:

Understanding Python Exceptions

Introduction to Python Exceptions

Exceptions in Python are real-world error analogies in the code. They occur when something goes wrong, due to incorrect code, input, or unforeseen circumstances. When exceptions occur, the program will stop running if these exceptions are not handled properly. Handling exceptions allow for the continuation of the program, or the graceful termination of the program with useful debug information.

Definition and Significance of Exceptions

  • Error: A problem in the code which makes the program stop.
  • Exception: A special kind of error that can be handled.

Real-world Analogy

Consider a scenario where you are expecting a file to be present at a certain location on your disk. If the file is not present, a FileNotFoundError will be raised. This is the program’s way of telling you that something you expected to happen didn’t happen.

    with open('file.txt', 'r') as file:
        content =
except FileNotFoundError as e:
    print(f"Error: {e}")

In the above code snippet, if file.txt doesn’t exist, Python will throw a FileNotFoundError. However, due to the try-except block, this error will be caught and a user-friendly message will be printed instead of halting the program.

Common Types of Exceptions in Python

Python has a number of built-in exceptions that are raised when your program encounters an error (something in the program goes awry). Here are some common exceptions you might encounter:

  • SyntaxError: Raised when there is an error in Python syntax.
  • TypeError: Raised when an operation or function is applied to an object of inappropriate type.
  • ValueError: Raised when a built-in operation or function receives an argument that has the right type but an inappropriate value.

The Try-Except Block

The try-except block in Python is used to catch and handle exceptions. Python executes code following the try statement as a “normal” part of the program. The code that follows the except statement is the program’s response to any exceptions in the preceding try clause.

    # code that may raise exception
    num = int("string")
except ValueError as ve:
    print(f"Error: {ve}")

In the code above, a ValueError will be raised because you cannot convert a string to an integer. The try-except block catches the error and prints a user-friendly message.

Syntax and Usage

  • The try block: Contains code that may raise an exception.
  • The except block: Contains code that will execute if an exception occurs.

Example Scenarios

  • Reading a file that may not exist.
  • User input validation.

Built-in Exception Classes

All exceptions in Python are instances of classes. These classes are derived from a base class known as Exception. The hierarchy of exception classes facilitates the creation of flexible code to handle different groups of exceptions in a structured manner.

Hierarchy of Exception Classes
  • Base class: Exception
  • Derived classes: ArithmeticError, LookupError, EnvironmentError, etc.

Commonly Used Built-in Exception Classes

  • OSError: Base class for I/O related errors.
  • IndexError: Raised when a sequence subscript is out of range.

Handling Exceptions in Python

Handling exceptions effectively is crucial for building robust applications. In Python, exception handling encompasses a broad spectrum from printing exceptions to logging them for post-mortem analysis. This section delves into various techniques to handle exceptions in Python.

Printing Exceptions

Being able to print exceptions is a fundamental aspect of handling exceptions in Python. It provides a way to understand what went wrong, without crashing the program.

Using the print Function to Display Exceptions

    # code that may raise exception
    num = int("string")
except ValueError as ve:
    print(f"Error: {ve}")

In the code snippet above, a ValueError exception is caught and its message is printed using the print function.

Formatting Exceptions for Better Readability

Python provides various ways to format exceptions, making it easier to understand the error.

    # code that may raise exception
    num = int("string")
except ValueError as ve:
    print(f"Error: {ve}")
    print(f"Exception Type: {type(ve)}")


Logging Exceptions

Logging exceptions is a step beyond merely printing them. It records exceptions in a log file, aiding in debugging post-mortem.

Introduction to Logging in Python

Python’s logging module provides a flexible framework for emitting log messages from Python programs. It’s part of the Python Standard Library, so you don’t need to install anything to use it.

import logging

    # code that may raise exception
    num = int("string")
except ValueError as ve:

In this code snippet, the logging.exception method logs the exception with a message “Error”.

How to Log Exceptions

Logging exceptions involve creating a logging configuration and using logging methods to record exceptions.

import logging

logging.basicConfig(filename='example.log', level=logging.ERROR)

    # code that may raise exception
    num = int("string")
except ValueError as ve:

In this code snippet, the logging.basicConfig method is used to configure the logging, and logging.exception is used to log the exception.

Custom Exception Classes

Creating user-defined exceptions allows for creating self-explanatory error messages and handling exceptions at a granular level.

Creating User-Defined Exceptions

class CustomError(Exception):

    raise CustomError("A custom error occurred")
except CustomError as ce:

In this code snippet, a custom exception class CustomError is created, which is derived from the base Exception class.

Use Cases for Custom Exceptions

Custom exceptions can be used to create program-specific error conditions. They can also be used to create a hierarchy of exception classes for a large codebase.

Advanced Exception Handling Techniques

Advanced exception handling involves techniques that provide more control over the exception handling process.

Exception Chaining

Exception chaining is used when an exception occurs while handling another exception.

    # code that may raise exception
    num = int("string")
except ValueError as ve:
    raise TypeError("A type error occurred") from ve

Context Managers for Exception Handling

Context managers simplify common resource management patterns by encapsulating standard uses of try/except/finally statements in so-called context management protocols.

with open('file.txt', 'r') as file:
    content =


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is an exception in Python?

An exception in Python is an error that occurs during the execution of a program, which disrupts the normal flow of the program’s instructions.

How do I catch exceptions in Python?

In Python, exceptions can be caught using a try-except block. Code that may raise an exception is placed within the try block, and code that will execute in case of an exception is placed within the except block.

How do I raise exceptions in Python?

Exceptions can be raised using the raise statement followed by the name of the exception, and optionally followed by an error message.

Can I create custom exceptions in Python?

Yes, you can create custom exceptions in Python by creating a new class derived from the base Exception class.

What is exception chaining in Python?

Exception chaining occurs when an exception is raised in response to catching a different exception. This is useful for capturing and retaining the traceback information of the original exception.

How do I log exceptions in Python?

You can log exceptions in Python using the logging module. By configuring a logger, you can capture exception information and write it to a log file or other output streams.

What are some common built-in exceptions in Python?

Some common built-in exceptions in Python include ValueError, TypeError, IndexError, KeyError, and FileNotFoundError.

How can I handle multiple exceptions in Python?

Multiple exceptions can be handled by using multiple except blocks with a try block or by specifying multiple exceptions in a single except block using a tuple.

What is the finally block in Python?

The finally block in Python is a block of code that will be executed no matter what, whether an exception is raised or not. It is often used for cleanup code.

What is the difference between errors and exceptions in Python?

Errors are issues in a program that the programmer does not expect to occur, while exceptions are conditions that a programmer anticipates and writes code to handle.

5/5 - (14 votes)

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This